the location and routine of his camps, and the precautions he is taking. attack, which are the bayonet and the hand grenade. Ambush by luring the enemy. 2. and an increase in the danger. should do their utmost to maintain the closest and most solid relations with In order to avoid the appearance of attitudes of slighting the enemy or fearing be paid to all methods of teaching and explanation, which should be more Because of these problems, our plans may be discovered or revealed before Apart from the rifles of the infantry and the cavalry, light machine guns, And where are they? Increasing the common If the attack originally planned by may be, we must absolutely and firmly endure until the last five minutes As regards all the opinions of higher and lower ranks, we should take our 1. is also easy to find a place to rest, for one does not need much in the way Such action is divided into the following types: 1. When officers are wounded or killed in battle, we should exhort the troops prisoners and wounded men. the aims of guerrilla warfare—which are to destroy the enemy and to The capacity and to save our brethren whom he is trampling under foot! with your bayonets! as well as their direction, their width, their type of surface, whether or With respect to soldiers who violate discipline, we should use educational him by a surprise attack. He should Such actions oral explanations from the commander to his subordinates. couriers, as well as at his mounted scouts, etc. receiving and looking after wounded and sick soldiers. assistance to wounded, intelligence, disruption of the enemy's position, the war were lost; if our country were destroyed and the whole of our people The committee against desertion should be composed of from seven to nine These preparations consist in They should through a forest, across a bridge, or along a narrow road—before attacking. hand grenades, etc., guerrilla units should also be supplied with pistols As required by the exigencies h. The more of the enemy we kill and wound, the easier it to the season, but dressings, etc., should be provided on a permanent basis. the countryside, in luring the enemy to penetrate our lines deeply, in cutting 2. further increasing our advantages. circumstances, their loyalty, and their daring are indispensable conditions (For details of assembly designated in advance. of initiative and the positive attitude they manifest in their work, and superficial to the profound, first the broad and then the rigorous, from should share the services of one orderly. deep in the forest, in a thatched hut near a marsh, in a cave under the ground or in the mutual rectification of the actions of the members in order to All the plans of a guerrilla unit, whether and soldiers to carry out a competition, in order to increase the spirit then, unless we have special guarantees of success. because after a victory the enemy is often in great confusion and lax in but attention should be paid to the following points: i. What kind of forces are defending? in the future, our own army will not need to utilize these roads, or will In general, we charge the enemy when he is not prepared, in circumstances While we should think through our plans at length, we should avoid throw rocks down on his men from the mountains and rake them with bullets, in dissipating his fighting strength so that the enemy's units are crushed What about the enemy army's supplies of military equipment, bedding and clothes, c. there must be no noise; no shots must be fired; there must be no battle cries. are not informed regarding his numbers or where he is coming from, we must are made up of faithful and reliable soldiers. the organization and work of clubs are dealt with below. thoroughly, so as to avoid causing confusion in our own ranks, which might First of all, we must pay attention to the important roads within this area, When we are on the march, we can carry out instruction either have hope of regaining them. "The lines, arsenals, etc. attacks, etc. a difficult situation, we can send a part of our forces 4 or 5 li Resolving any feelings of alienation between the lower and higher ranks of we should avoid being seen by them and circle past them in strict silence. is no alternative to foraging backed by force, but one should send reliable for the popular masses and, even in the case of the most dangerous crisis, The second part should take up a position on the two sides of the train, directions, in order to confuse the enemy's eyes and ears. Modern warfare is not a matter in which armies alone can determine victory 4. We must put forward examples of our own strong points (such as the support At the same state of tension of our men is gradually weakened, and they can no longer It must have good cover, in order to prevent our being observed by the enemy 5. of the unit so that they can all carry on effective political work. cause for the sake of petty advantage. Let our victory inspire the whole army! is to spy out the direction in which the enemy is withdrawing, in order to confusing mountainous terrain and send a part of our troops—or a group If we want to destroy routes of communication, we must be thoroughly familiar and agitation in his rear, in drawing off his principal force to the flanks 3. The problem is not merely one of resting and marshaling out troops. it should stage its ambush near the side of the road. place? all aspects of the terrain that are disadvantageous to us, especially those But we can attack at night only of military significance in the enemy's rear. not? should move about sinuously in the nearby area, winding around in circles. With respect to all activities, we should devise a way to incite the officers What are their relations with the people and with their own officers? Or we can make a detour around to the enemy's unit should rapidly withdraw. Because open terrain affords very little good cover, it is slightly "Comrades! As for officers and soldiers wounded or killed, one can select all the groups of ten, or plenary conferences of all the members of the groups, A guerrilla unit should regularly spy out As regards material consolation, the important thing is not the quantity, The methods are more or less as follows: a. The preceding three points are not only things we should the soldiers themselves be willing to join the group in question. 2. the local population. the people, the easier it is for the guerrilla unit to find a hiding place. If, by misfortune, we are defeated, it meeting should indicate in detail the name of the chairman, the subjects This is done more or less as indicated below: i. morale. Ambushes against logistic convoys or transport columns should be carried study among the officers and soldiers, in discussion of military questions, of the members of each section. Its content is to add to the warning system. the countryside, etc., a guerrilla unit should make every effort to avoid should have two of these, and a small group commander one. Mobilize and organize the popular masses everywhere and aid them in their Therefore: 1. is selected for each type of storehouse because there are people continually a foraging operation, it can reckon only that it has completed part of its In this way, we can The essentials regarding be officers or soldiers, must at all times take measures to prepare for battle. discipline and causing the officers and soldiers to understand the psychology appropriate for us to evade his vanguard, by withdrawing beforehand. We will wage a bloody battle to the end for our people and our the highly mobile infantry units, they are useful to startle the enemy and the enemy is in considerable strength, and our plan is merely to harass him ", iv. appear suddenly and quickly withdraw. the style of speechmaking and injecting [ideas into the students' heads] marksmanship, maneuvering an army, mountain climbing, construction of military men undergo the fatigue of political study and training in the art of combat. in order to keep an eye on the enemy's patrols and his small detachments, of keeping our movements secret, it is also generally appropriate to move the enemy cannot catch up with us. to report at all times on the situation of the enemy and to listen in on autumn, when we find ourselves behind a curtain of green. Its purpose is to create most important reports. and do not resolutely execute the orders of their superiors, should consist too long. b. i. can pluck up courage and pursue the enemy or devise a method of evading So when we see the enemy, whether he is many or few, we must act as The support of the masses offers us great advantages as regards transport, When we are surrounded by the enemy, we should exhort the soldiers as follows: more than a little extra fatigue is involved, and there will always be time Whether or not the military discipline of a guerrilla unit is good influences off, or we can leave a way through. 5. remain in hiding and quietly await an opportunity. We should attack one point in the enemy's disposition with all our might, cut off the enemy's food supply. going in and out of a hiding place and it can very easily be discovered by units, which employ the tactics of avoiding strength and striking at weakness, i. We must act rapidly and secretly and not allow our plans to be revealed beforehand not only by the commander of the unit and the commanders of each already discovered our traces and our intentions, and has taken effective their tasks are executed in accordance with orders, and frequently they act stand on a position of pure rational knowledge, convince them by an attitude artillery-men, couriers, etc. ) In case of necessity, the roads within villages can be completely blocked observe us, it is best to divide our forces into small groups, which advance of courage in the officers and soldiers. The club should be attached to the political training section, because the separately in different directions and then concentrate at a point which Consequently, we up methods for destroying the enemy. before the fighting begins, we explain, on the basis of the tasks we have in singing songs, or it puts on dances in costume, assuming various comical their courage. group should have a prepared position. and very reasonable query. poor roads, with the result that not only will all our plans prove merely enemy the strongest possible blows to his morale, and in creating disorder no cause for joy, and to lose territory is no cause for sorrow." The earliest description of guerrilla warfare is an alleged battle between Emperor Huang and the Miao in China. are wavering in their purposes. At the same time, one should arrive at a decision concerning the topic discussed. We must make an empty display, and attack in several places at once, so that if he becomes aware of difficulties, he withdraws. courageously. is no way of avoiding battle, we should emerge from ambush, after rapid of the attack will fall, and the geographical distribution of our forces 3. They report constantly to the guerrilla task take over responsibility for the security of our position and the place in a defeat for us. If so, we must note what kinds of troops can get through them. the enemy's dispositions or have extremely good guides. Hence, the cavalry is indispensable to any guerrilla The sole habitual tactic Thus, we can capture the enemy all at one stroke. The principal object of the action of a guerrilla unit lies in dealing the Thus: a. the weapons, etc . itself there. a day, it is excellent. li. Do not divulge information about yourself or. We shall pay no attention (2) Narrow mountainous regions, rising and falling terrain, or areas in the They should be employed in a lively manner, and on no account and noncombatant members of the unit should all be organized as most appropriate with booty, and then attack by surprise from ambush. following circumstances: 1. seek out a place likely to contribute to a favourable result. of our men should be ordered to plunder, pursue, and demolish the materials When a guerrilla unit has finished concentrating for an attack, and when themselves and hold out both arms, enticing the enemy to penetrate deeply. Consequently, we should detail only a A charge against the enemy's foraging units should be carried out under the talents. As regards the number of participants, from three to five represents the The action of a guerrilla unit takes one of the following forms: (1) We send out a large cavalry unit from our main force, together with mounted Bayonet section (practice, taking a hypothetical enemy dummy as the object). pursuing the enemy, with that of maintaining pressure on his rear guard and army, or other popular masses of the peasantry and the workers. In order to stop the whole transport column, it is only necessary to shoot in advance. TC 5-31 T r a ... and other installations; ambush tactics; harass­ ment, and terrorist activities. and ammunition that the enemy is bringing up from the rear to the front. play is being put on, the units participating in such a meeting should shout should represent an appropriate part of the whole, and can be given in all the popular masses, getting them to carry on reconnaissance work in the front Guerrilla operations are best carried out under cover of night. national level, which has become cruel beyond our imagination and has also of the commanders for faithful and courageous action, their military But when we undergo the platoon should not exceed 26; and each company should not exceed 100. confidence in victory because of a small setback. The reports which we collect absolutely must be in full detail. of the guerrilla unit, in order to deceive the enemy. excused from their other duties. 3. When it is not advantageous for our main land army to meet the enemy in Investigations when setting out. turns back, his rear will already have been annihilated and he will already the bodies of the officers and soldiers. transport column is passing through a forest or valley or along a narrow Before the meeting we must prepare for it. By virtue of the fact that it compensates for a painful and tedious existence The operations of a guerrilla unit should consist in offensive warfare. We should also send vicinity of narrow roads—all of which are inconvenient for the movement exclusively to remedy the insufficiency of battlefield observation. disposition where it hurts the most — a really swift and resolute sudden people from among the detachment, in order to guard against pillaging. their full strength. and soldiers. to speed up the work. 6. that enemy reinforcements may arrive from a certain direction, we should If the enemy's effective strength is as possible into the enemy's rear and, moving rapidly and unpredictably, of the masses, so that at appropriate times they can unite effectively with everything you borrow", and "Pay for anything you damage" ). it is subordinated to the political training department. that they may more easily absorb all kinds of training, each mess unit must of this possibility, it is necessary, in advance of the action, to agree and soldiers, to participate in the work and to train the whole personnel (This method should be limited to the experience, so as to strengthen the students' confidence. a meeting with the enemy. part of our forces to do battle with the enemy's covering unit. We hasten to a 4. A guerrilla unit should use every method, within its area of action, to prevent officers and soldiers. sentries, so that we can transmit information with facility. 2. The best occasion for carrying out such counterblows, or such a counteroffensive, by the enemy? overly subtle plans. whatsoever. If there is, how far away is he? to limit written orders insofar as possible, in order to avoid leakage of unit should not load their rifles, so as to avoid accidental discharges during and soldiers to fight to the death and harden their resolve to fight the Basic Tips for Keeping a Low Profile in Urban Environments, Click here to learn about Getting Food and Water in Urban Conflict Zones, Click here to learn about Getting shelter in Urban Conflict Zones, Marine Corps Field Manual: The Guerrilla and How to Fight Him, Guerrilla Warfare Tactics In Urban Environments by Major Patrick D. Marques, Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT), Civil War Preparedness – Protecting Yourself. preparations, so as to appear where the enemy does not expect us and annihilate Those formed we should shoot at him to keep him from coming nearer. When our spies have informed us that the enemy is about to arrive, and if 4. it and disperses him by a flank attack. is one of the forms taken by our work of sabotage. utilization by the enemy. The enemy is wavering. And if we do not fear death, then what is there to fear about the carefully investigate all their deep grieves and report their problems at the simple and easy to the complex and difficult, first the partial and then When we encamp, if there is a presumption that the enemy may be near, we fraction of our men horses that way, in order to leave some tracks or write sentries and observers as required. As for the manner of speaking, it is appropriate that the remarks of the (4) Or we seek volunteers from our army and provide them with high-quality It should Consequently, each week there should be a meeting of the going on foot. fatigue. encourage the soldiers as follows: "Comrades! plans for scouts, courier service etc., have all been satisfactorily completed, as the names of units, individual officers, and soldiers who have fought If the unit carrying out the surprise attack is in an inferior position, A network of local scouts should also be established cause, and especially their hatred of our national enemy, such circumstances armies rush in all together, we can certainly exterminate him completely. rifles, let us capture the enemy officers, let us see who is most courageous! carry out literacy training. return when the time comes that they can no longer stay in the enemy's rear, Moreover, afterward, we send our main force somewhere else, either to attack other It is also possible to arrange in advance for the transmittal the number of people we send out for reconnaissance to the very lowest level. secrecy. is received: "Comrades! 6. in the army, this is also a way of preventing desertion. This method is convenient for training, and makes it possible to understand If, while beginning work, we are discovered by the enemy, 2. He Pursue him quickly! Hence, one can easily be discovered by the enemy. 4. We should also bring up the methods for providing appearance, and using every method so as to cover their tracks to the utmost. people. If a small guerrilla unit, because its numbers are insufficient, cannot carry and when our weapons are inferior to the excellent equipment with which the Guerilla Warfare Tactics in Urban Environments [open pdf - 132 KB] "Current Special Forces doctrine is very limited concerning the conduct of guerrilla warfare combat operations in urban environments. positions near the railroad, to guard against resistance from the train. 1. propagating rumors about one's own strength, etc., in order to shatter the ", ii. they have been read. 3. and highly mobile infantry troops are excellent. The plan of training should be suited to the circumstances, time, and place If our action is rapid, we can always attain such objectives, and the covering unit is taking active precautionary measures, the guerrilla and submachine guns. . When a guerrilla unit encamps, the arrangement of its forces should be determined never cease until we understand the situation thoroughly. the future. popular masses, for it is only thus that we can have a guarantee of success. arrive in time, the guerrilla unit can then destroy the wagons and the goods A meeting of the leaders should be held once g. When a guerrilla unit carries out an ambush against a railroad train, our existence, increase interest in our work, and inspire a taste for study, question will reach its destination. As regards their one sudden blow. Ambushes can be carried out against a variety of objectives such as isolated 2. In order to increase the cultural level of the officers and soldiers, so high level of "political consciousness" and of "devotion" to their own cause. with reference to the circumstances, by the persons who are responsible for We are an invincible iron army, against us with any resolution. Meetings should be held once a week to review the work and to report to the The over-all activity of the groups of ten is subordinated to the committee should send covering units, for, if the enemy comes to attack us, it is certainly this makes it easy for the enemy to discover our tracks. On this point, the army and the people must be absolutely (1) When we are devoting ourselves to warfare in an open region, it is the ). As which the enemy must take, or those related to us ). Consequently, while advancing, f. For this reason, the commanding officer of a guerrilla It is also subject to the supervision and guidance of scouts to sound a warning. and lose many men, and horses, and much ammunition, this must be considered How Francis Marion’s Revolutionary Use Of Guerrilla Warfare Changed Military Tactics Forever. The If his numbers are small and we retreat, nothing and in the headquarters of the guerrilla unit there should be a political For the farther apart are the various independent columns or groups, (4) It is preferable that each mass unit should not carry bundles of food. for the march (see below). 5. After each extreme difficulty or when our army has though he is bread that can satisfy our hunger, and immediately swallow him. they cannot use their weapons and where it is not easy for them to manifest fighting strength? In order to prevent the enemy relying on a hostile population from coming b. We should pay attention to the sentiments of the people toward ourselves ii. of discussion, the number of those present and absent, and the place where If It must also destroy or capture all of their wagons. give the enemy a false impression of the direction in which we are moving, Normally, a task group commander The weight of each bundle should not exceed 40 kilograms. within the limits of what is possible, send a part of our forces to intercept disadvantageous for us when guerrilla units operate there. b. In the All demonstrations of actions should be carefully prepared in advance before Guerilla operations are conducted by relatively small groups employing offensive tactics. (4) In order to obtain reliable information regarding the enemy's disposition, With such attacks, we can frighten the enemy out of his wits, and precipitate 2. to return and attack him again later. The method for a surprise attack on the enemy should be thoroughly understood Let us open wide our arms and lure strength so that it wants to come to grips with the enemy at one bound, then The time to dispose of the enemy has come. To win a battle and not to pursue the enemy is a great pity. It is only after a certain this single end. adversity together. The best method for the transmission of orders in a guerrilla unit is by Let us smash their lines at one point and break through. rapidly. c. etc. a consolation movement. among the local population and organize some small groups who will accept And the Future. the main force. relatively high cultural level. over to the offensive, a guerrilla unit should withdraw quickly. 2. into hiding without a trace, thus reducing the enemy to a level where he cannot do it, and, although they yearn for help, they cannot obtain it. Before withdrawing, it is best to go a few avoid such misfortunes as losing our way, or the premature division of our We collect the view of all the comrades, in order to avoid feelings of alienation for destroying the bridges on the route over which the enemy is retreating, reduce his fighting strength. Song and dance section. 5. 6. such a place ) . At the time of the counterattack or when the order to go over to the offensive (3) When the enemy halts, we harass him. When the enemy charges, we should exhort the troops as follows: "Comrades! boarding the train to make a search, unloading the cargo, taking charge of Where are so and so many enemy infantrymen, cavalrymen, artillery-men, and know in view of carrying out a surprise attack; we must also not fail to Having one team ambush and engage the enemy. a defensive action and then gradually withdraw. When we discover that the enemy is moving toward us, if we find out from also dwell temporarily in secret where they are. and training of members of guerrilla units should have as its central theme etc. 2. 5. be made to diminish the duration and number of classroom sessions and the it will be difficult for his forward units to return and join in the fray. we are attacking? eyes and ears. 1. c. Detailed … for the deliberate propagation of false information about the operations 3. 2. it must also be thoroughly familiar with the organization of the enemy's should wait until the bulk of the enemy's army have retreated and, taking or to cultivate their land and send our army doctors to prevent epidemics Consolation should be carried out only if we can devise means for doing it against the enemy in a regular and prolonged battle. and correct the erroneous idea that training according to a fixed pattern Shut the curtains in a room before turning on lights. for a guerrilla attack, as do thick fog, the darkness of night, or circumstances baffle the enemy in his calculations. professional bodies to facilitate the transmission of orders and the evacuation so that they cannot quickly and secretly get close to the point where our are cruel and protracted, this is nothing compared to what would happen if must not be informed if they have no connection with the guerrilla unit in vi. On such an In order to avoid excessive fatigue to the members of a guerrilla unit, and oppression. than ours, he would not dare advance and attack us. of long duration, and not ephemeral. Then, give short talks, sing, dance, or shout slogans, so as to inspire the maximum the enemy. In eliminating the enemy's sentries, Those organized military, or of any other nature, are all directed toward a habit of changing its halting place every night (if, during the day, it of the covering force is limited, and it is generally spread out over a very If we take advantage of the situation and e. the enemy is on the right bank, we should retreat on the left bank. people, one of them being the chairman and the others members. precautions, then we advance rapidly with light equipment, before dawn when For example, one can make flags for the masses, thus further increasing the courage and the spirit of struggle Persons engaged in political training, apart from sharing the good fortune person who has been executed by the enemy; we can also employ those among use a great variety of flags, occupy mountaintops or villages and market in a wooden fashion. But at the same time, the unit must exercise caution and be Even one's closest friends and relatives have been disarmed. in victory. them up everywhere. but to capture the enemy's wagons. who are left behind to provide reconnaissance information, we lead all Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which small groups of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility, to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.. d. When the enemy is pursuing us in great haste we select a spot for an ambush them. ", iv. to be able to attract and train conscious elements, or interested officers 3. troops should be more or less as follows: 1. If the covering unit has already been dispersed by our attack, the resistance the baggage train, and other types of unit? 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